Let's enjoy more!The Glass Museum Annex
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Challenge! Special questions about the secret of the glass.

History of glass

 Introduction, About the history of glass Let's learn.

What kind of glass was it in the past?

When was glass first created

(1) The birth place of glass The birth of glass is said to be Egypt,but it is actually Mesopotamia It is considered to be powerful.
(2) Glass techniques・Mosaic technique...Make inner mold and outer mold,then spread glass on outer mold,It is a technique to coat the inner mold.
・Core technique...Wind the color glass around the core made of clay,It is a technique to remove the clay after cooling.

Ancient Glass Ancient times 

・Beginning around 5000 BC,it was used as a material for making ceramics and bronze ware. In about 1500 BC,in Mesopotamia and Egypt,a glass container was made by the "embossing method".    

Rome and blown glass     

・In the 1st century BC,the technique of blown glass was invented. For this technique, put the glass on the tip of the thin iron pipe and the blow the glass,It is a technique to breathe out and inflate the glass. Even now it can be seen when making vases etc.

  By this technique many glass containers of
various shapes and sizes have been made.
It began to spread to Mesopotamia and Egypt.
But now even Initially,the glass cup was valuable,
an ordinary person can now buy it.
Window glass was also born around this time.   

 It is amazing how old technologies are still used
in the past!
I wonder what happened to the subsequent glasses?


Venice glass Venice      

(1) The birth of Venetian glass After the Roman Empire died,
glass craftsmen migrated to the surrounding country. They created their own glass products. For example,in the Republic of Venice in Italy,Venetian glasses were born.

(2) Prosperity of Venetian Glass In the early modern European glass market,
Venetian glass could often be found. Around this time,
enamel painting techniques were used.
Glass with high transparency called Cristallo was invented. High transparency,
was created using techniques such as lace glass and Millefiori. These delicate glasswars were welcomed by European courts and wealthy people.

(3) Glass of architecture and crafts When glass is used for buildings,
Glass and glass crafts in buildings will go different paths. In the 20th century,
due to the Flukol method and the Corburn law,We were able to start mass producing flat glasses.

Modern times Modern times 

・In the 1960s,the United States was named by Harvey Littleton and others as a piace that "Aim for free art expression using glass" The atelier and glass movement was taking place. Thanks to this,we do not rely on factories,but individuals who have small glass furnaces. I began creating work with my own atelier. And the technology to make glass spread to Western Europe. It developed in many countries.

What glasses were conveyed to Japan? 

・It is said that glasses were transmitted to Japan during the Yayoi period. Remains of the Yayoi era glass beads,said to be the oldest glass in Japan,have been found. I do not know if it was made in Japan,however,a glass furnace has been discovered,there is no doubt that it was modeled processed 2000 years ago in Japan.

Glass was transmitted like this in a long time ago.

 From here the history of Japanese glass starts. Let's go see what happened.

The symbol of prayer glass Prayer 

・Asuka ~ Nara era (7th - 8th centuries) in Japan
glass raw materials were made. Lead glass spread,
and many glass products were used.
An elaborate glass vessel is an imported item.

Glass as a living container Living container 

・In 1549,when Francisco Xavier came to Japan,the glassware was transmitted. At this time,it was recognized that the glass craft was the perfect gift for those with the highest rank. Negotiations with overseas became active,and glass products such as glass beads and flasks became popularized.

Practical application of glass products  

・At the end of Genroku era (1688 - 1703),the recession came. We managed to improve products and develop new products in an effort to break down the recession. After that,in 1708 an Italian missionary,Sidich came to Yakushima.
As Sidjitch came,Japan thought about commercializing Western culture. Development of glass products was promoted from this idea. Practical applications such as glass containers and glass lenses,became widespread. These products spread quickly to Kyoto,Edo,and Nagasaki.

Changes in the glass seen by the times 

(1) Honaga,Masanori (1704 - 1715) A small,thin,light,blown glass product circulated.

(2) Tian Ming and Kanari (1781 - 1800) A large product of mold blown glass appeared. Then you could breath in patterns,and Space blown glass became popular.

(3) Government (1818 - 1829) For Osaka's premium glass,Mass production of cheap glass started in Edo.

(4) Kanaga,Aso (1848 - 1859) Manufacture and sale of glass started in the Satsuma clan.

Import and decline of glass 

・Glass of Edo will reach declining period due to a lack of popularity. It first popular due to the start of free trade in Ansei sixth year in Yokohama,Hakodate,and Nagasaki. The glass of Osaka also started production and sale of the glass of the Satsuma clan dunug this But due to portation from Europe and the United States the Japanese glass indvstay receive a big blow. Imported European and American glasses were strong and hard to break, Compared with that,the glass of Edo was very fragile,Glass which had been imported was more popular naturally.

Modernization of glass 

(1) Edo glass to Western-style glass In the Meiji era,glass scraps began to be imported. With this,Tokyo glass makers came to manufacture cheap glass. On the other hand,the government,for the development of glass,instead of being made by glass craftsmen, thought that it would be better to make it at the factory. By introducing machines and relyang foreign engineer,the glass of Tokyo became popular again. At this time,the glass shop in Tokyo only had a with a few disciples. But in the Meiji era it developed to the extent that it became a small company.

(2) Glass Factory During the Edo period,Japan made many fragile lead products and fragile glass products. However,when European and US glass scraps were imported,Japan began making soda glass. In 1856,a glass factory was made in Shinagawa. It was the first glass factory in Japan,but it closed due to poor management.